I plan to use contemporary statistics and older more historic statistics to show progress throughout history of organized crime. Not each will have modern references and not each will have historic references.
Here are a few examples of data collected:
• 90 per cent of banknotes in circulation in the United States are contaminated by narcotics; a similar analysis in London in 1999 showed that 99 per cent of all banknotes circulating in the city are tainted with cocaine, with 1 in 20 exhibiting high levels of the drug, suggesting that they have been handled by dealers or have been used to snort the drug.
Also in 1998 the Swiss Finance Ministry confirmed that the country was implicated in $500 billion of money laundering each year. Although no official figure exists it has been reliably estimated that between $40 to $50 billion of Russian Money resides in Swiss Banks - with realistically little way of knowing whether it is flight capital or laundered money.
I plan to link the rope up to the torture devices of the past and to cruelty.
c. 5000 B.C. The Sumerians use opium, suggested by the fact that they
have an ideogram for it which has been translated as HUL, meaning "joy" or
"rejoicing." [Alfred R. Lindensmith, *Addiction and Opiates.* p.207]
c. 1525 Paracelsus (1490-1541) introduces laudanum, or tincture of
opium, into the practice of medicine.
1805 Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Serturner, a German chemist, isolates and
1901 The Senate adopts a resolution, introduced by Henry Cabot Lodge, to
forbid the sale by American traders of opium and alcohol "to aboriginal
tribes and uncivilized races." Theses provisions are later extended to
include "uncivilized elements in America itself and in its territories,
such as Indians, Alaskans, the inhabitants of Hawaii, railroad workers,
and immigrants at ports of entry." [Sinclar, op.cit. p.33]
1918 The Anti-Saloon League calls the "liquor traffic" "un-American,"
pro-German, crime-producing, food-wasting, youth-corrupting, home-
wrecking, [and] treasonable." [ibid. p.121]
it is believed that the assassins were under the influence of hashish and opium during their killings or during their indoctrination, and that assassin derives from hasishin, the influence of the drugs. However, this is only partly true. At the time of their existence "Hashashins" were people who sold medicine. The region of Alamut was filled with plants rich with natural medicine and many of the residents of that region made a living by selling those plants at Bazaars (Marketplaces) that were called Bazare Hashashin (The medicine market). Due to their advanced medicine during that period, they were able to offer free health care to their citizens. Also many people in Iran would travel to the region of Alamut to get cured for unknown illnesses.
Contract killing appeals to some people partially because it can be used to establish an "airtight" alibi for the person who takes out the contract—at the time of the killing, this person can plan to be far away and in a place where many people will see him or her. At the same time, the person who actually commits the murder may have little or no direct connection to the victim, making it much more difficult for investigators to establish what has happened. By contracting out a murder, a criminal can also avoid personally committing murder, which some may be unwilling or incapable of doing, especially if they had a close relationship with the victim.
Contract killings are often, though not always, associated with organized crime. Depending on the region and era, contract killers have been used to silence witnesses testifying against criminals or to eliminate rival criminals or politicians who refuse to take a bribe (plata o plomo - a Spanish phrase meaning literally "silver or lead" which usually translates into "money or bullet" — "accept a bribe or face assassination"). The use of anonymous contract killers also mitigates against the formation and continuation of vendettas, which would undermine a criminal organization. An example of this was the use of Murder, Inc. by the Mafia Commission and National Crime Syndicate in the mid-20th century.
A motor vehicle, commonly referred to as a getaway car, is frequently used by the offender to flee the scene of a crime. Getaway cars are prevalent in crimes such as bank robberies. Very frequently, but not always, a getaway car is stolen and is abandoned soon after the crime in hopes that the vehicle cannot be traced to the offender. While witnesses to the crime will often attempt to take note of the tags or other important details of the car and report this information to law enforcement, if the vehicle does not belong to the owner and is quickly abandoned, a trace may not be possible without examination of forensic evidence. It may be possible, however, to identify the offender if an officer spots the offender in possession of the vehicle prior to its abandonment, or if a witness follows the offender to the point of abandonment, and observes the offenders tracks from beyond this point. Such civilian involvement, though, may be dangerous, and is generally not recommended by police departments.
In some cases, the offender may go to extreme measures to discard the getaway vehicle in order to hide his tracks. These may include dumping it in a river or setting it on fire. While this may not make solving the crime impossible, it can make the effort more difficult for law enforcement.